Our Trust Chair, Keith Morgan, outlined the difficulties facing all EFL clubs as they try to rebuild after lockdown. The cases of Bury and Wigan particularly should ring alarm bells throughout the game of football.
Cardiff Trust Board member and former Vice Chair of Supporters Direct, Tim Hartley, suggests some positive ways forward to ensuring clubs do not go out of business.
They say you must speculate to accumulate but as anyone with
a credit card knows extending yourself too far is a one way ticket to financial
disaster. And with hyper inflated transfer fees and eye watering players’ wages
that is exactly what football seems to have been doing. We all want success but
would you risk betting the actual existence of Cardiff City on the slim chance
Football finance has become a law unto itself and the
authorities who allegedly control the game have lost their grip on who buys,
manages and safeguards the game. For years Supporters Direct and the Football
Supporters Association (FSA) have warned that there was a crisis looming and
what we have seen at Bury, Bolton and Wigan has proved them right.
The problem is the lack of desire on behalf of the FA, PL
and EFL to properly regulate the game. As we in Cardiff know anyone it seems
can buy a football club and then do what they want with it. Supporters groups (including
the Cardiff City Supporters Trust) have given evidence to a number of parliamentary
inquiries to try to improve the way the game is run.They joined the government
task force on football and helped ensure structured relationships between clubs
and supporter trusts are now mandatory. All this was agreed with the FA and the
It’s now time to go deeper into the underlying problems and
ensure that the business side of the game is properly regulated. Following yet
another inquiry the Digital, Culture, Media & Sport (DCMS) Committee last
year recommended a raft of proposals to improve the regulation of football
clubs and prevent them from falling into crisis.
Chair of the Committee Damian Collins MP said: “We believe
decisive action is now needed from the football authorities to ensure that
clubs are complying fully with the EFL’s football finance rules and
regulations.A failure to enforce these rules effectively will see more clubs
entering administration and at risk of expulsion from the Football League.”
The FSA submitted written proposals which focused on the
creation of a robust, independent regulator under the auspices of the FA. Football’s
self-regulatory regime contributed to the demise of Bury FC and a lack of
action could put more clubs at risk in future.
The Committee agreed and backed a number of FSA ideas on
protecting club and strengthening the owners’ and directors’ test – and
more. The recommendations
The FA, EFL and Premier League should establish
a supporters’ ombudsman to hear concerns about how clubs are being run
A reformed Owners and Directors Test should be
brought in to disqualify a buyer with a record of corporate insolvency
Clubs should be banned from borrowing against
fixed assets such as stadiums, other than for related capital projects
There should be a formal and enforceable
licensing system for professional football clubs in the English league system,
as recommended in the 2011 report on Football Governance
Government legislation for independent system of
football licensing and regulationshouod be brought in if the reforms are not
The message to the footballing authorities from supporters
and MPs is very simple, change or be changed. Let’s hope the government at last
listens to us.
Trust chair Keith Morgan writes in a personal capacity in two discussion papers about collapse of Wigan into Administration and football finance post Covid-19. Keith is a Chartered Accountant and Licenced Insolvency Practitioner with a specialism in football finance.
Wigan Athletic FC Administration – How did it happen and what happens next?
How did it happen?
After several years without any financial failures of EFL clubs, we recently have had the failures of Bury, Bolton and now Wigan.
Wigan, like the vast majority of EFL clubs, will undoubtedly have been badly affected by the sudden loss of income arising from the three month shutdown of the game due to the Coronavirus pandemic but in their case there remain some unanswered questions as to why they find themselves in such a predicament.
When long-time owner of the club David Whelan sold it in 2018 to a Chinese-backed consortium , he almost certainly did so in the firm belief that their promised access to very substantial new funds was in the best interests of the club and would enable its long term future to be more secure.
The sale would have had to have received the approval of the EFL under their new Owner and Director tests. They are supposed to receive verified evidence that any new owner and any directors those owners appoint to the club have both the necessary funding and experience of running a football club needed to keep the club going for at least a future full season of activity. How they made that decision, and what expertise they brought to the decision making process, is not in the public domain.
Then, very recently the owners who bought from David Whelan, themselves sold on the club to another consortium (in which the consortium owner also had a material financial stake). That deal should also have been reviewed and approved by the EFL yet, within a month or so, Wigan Athletic FC is placed in Administration.
For several years the Football Supporters’ Association and its predecessors Supporters Direct and Football Supporters’ Federation (in which Cardiff City Supporters’ Trust have long played a part), have been pressing the football authorities and the UK government to tighten up and improve the tests on new owners and directors. There have been promises to do so, but the Wigan example suggests they have yet to implement any such improved procedures. The need for change has, therefore, become even more pressing and I am sure that FSA will continue to champion the issue before any club suffers from the same problem of lack of EFL control procedures.
What happens next?
Wigan Athletic FC is now in Administration and under the control of insolvency practitioner firm BegbiesTraynor. Administration is, in itself, not a financial solution. It merely protects the company from being wound up through the courts and put into liquidation, from having its assets seized by creditors such as finance companies, landlords etc. Without court approval, The Administrator’s job is to find a buyer for the club’s business, who can inject enough new money into the club to pay off the creditors it needs to under the EFL insolvency rules, and ensures its future financial viability.
Those creditors will include paying off in full or adopting liability for, creditors who have secured charges over assets and also paying off in full football creditors (unpaid salaries, transfer fees etc). In addition, other unsecured creditors need to be paid off at least 25p in £ of the debts due to them and financial projections prepared proving that any new owner can fund the business going forward ( hopefully tested far better than in Wigan’s previous sale).
The fact that the 12 point deduction Wigan will suffer because of Administration is highly likely to get them relegated to League 1 risks making them a less attractive buy for new owners under the above cost adoption restraints. If Wigan end up relegated even before the 12 point deduction, then the 12 point deduction will be imposed at the start of next season rather than 2019-20.
Covid-19 – Impact on Football Club Finances
Who has suffered the most?
For Premier League clubs, match day income from walk up crowds, catering etc. represents a relatively small percentage of their total income. Much of their money derives from TV and other media deals, which are still in place and their sponsors, are still getting exposure for their products through this media so there is little income lost from this source. Even for matchday income, a high proportion of this income comes from season ticket sales most of which will probably not need to be refunded (access to club TV etc).There will be some loss of income from catering contracts where their contractors are not able to make sales, so will look for refunds on their agreements but overall adverse financial impact will be relatively low.
League1 and League 2 clubs rely far more heavily on match day income from walk-up crowds as their media income is only a very small percentage of that of Premier League clubs and even many Championship clubs and they tend to have a far lower ratio of season ticket holders to total match attendees. They will have been likely to put more staff on furlough to reduce costs and, of course, this government support will be reduced very soon and end by the end of October under currently announced plans.
Redundancies and other cost savings appear inevitable and even that may not be enough to save some clubs from financial failure unless they can raise money from new investors, crowdfunding schemes etc. I would not be surprised to see a number of clubs at this level seeking the remedy of Administration or other creditor payment arrangements to save themselves.
Championship club impact is likely to be a bit of a mixed bag. A number of clubs, like Cardiff City, are in receipt of “parachute payments” to help their finances but some of those clubs (not us) might just have spent that additional money on new players in an attempt to boost their promotion prospects.
Those clubs that don’t have that “bonus” source of income are likely to be in a more precarious financial position as again match day income represents a high level of their total income and many clubs don`t have high levels of season ticket holder money in hand. Most, if not all clubs at this level, will have put non-playing staff on furlough but this is due to end soon and in any case their wage cost tends to be only a small proportion of their total wage bill. Reports suggest that most players at clubs have only agreed a deferment of their wages rather than a permanent reduction, so those costs are just a “kicking the can down the road” exercise rather than a cost saving going forward.
In summary, clubs across the board face a financial difficulty arising from the Covid -19 shutdown but some are far better able to cope with it than others.
An encouraging statement as far as our club is concerned came from the Chair Mehmet Dalman recently. He was quoted as saying that whilst Cardiff City fans should not be looking to the club to spend much on improving the club playing squad going forward, the club is in a more stable financial position than some of our Championship rivals.
Commenting on the club announcement, Trust chair Keith Morgan said: “We’re pleased that Cardiff City has published the details of its proposals for season ticket holders and match ticket purchasers for the 2019-20 season.
“It appears from information received from the Football Supporters Association that there is no collective approach to this issue by Championship clubs with options varying club by club.
“However, if any of our members are unhappy at the options outlined by the club, we will put grievances directly to the club’s chief executive officer on their behalf. Members should email firstname.lastname@example.org if they have an issue they would like us to raise.
“In addition, we will be seeking clarification from the club about what the loss of season ticket status and its benefits means for those fans who seek a cash refund. Would a “loss of status” apply for the rest of this season or next season when, for instance, there are usually early bird discounts on season tickets. Some fans may need a cash refund because of the impact of the coronavirus crisis on their family income.”
Congratulations to Trust Member Anthony Holloway. Many 100% correct answers were received to the quiz in the recent Trust magazine “Moving to a Different Beat”. He was the lucky member whose name was drawn out of the hat and he wins the prize of £50. Here are the answers to the questions set in the magazine
1 This Republic of Ireland international signed for the City for a club record £1m in July 2001 – who is he?
The run unto the 2001/02 season saw a bit of a spending spree with a number of players arriving to reinforce our effort to get out of the 3rd Division. Two notable signings were Neil Alexander and Spencer Prior but the most significant was the arrival of Graham Kavanagh from Stoke City for a club record fee of £1m. A highlight of that season was his superb free kick for the first goal in the memorable FA Cup victory over Leeds United. He undoubtedly became our most influential player and a firm favourite. However, whilst the big spending could be seen to have paid off when we were promoted the following season it was not financially sustainable. By 2004/05 club financial problems had mounted with wages not being paid and, as a result, Kavanagh reluctantly departed, by helicopter, to Wigan for a fee of £600,000 which enabled wages to be paid in the short term but was not an end to our problems.
2. During the 2012/13 Championship promotion season David Marshall was ever present in league games but which keeper played in the 2 cup games that season?
We signed Joe Lewis on a Bosman in May 2012 to replace Tom Heaton who departed for the Wurzels. It was always going to be the case that Joe would be back up for first choice David Marshall and in his 1st season only played the 2 games including the forgettable FA Cup defeat at Macclesfield. Loans to Blackpool and Fulham followed and in 2016 he signed for Aberdeen where, in 2019, he was appointed club captain.
3. A remarkable example of club loyalty, this player was at Cardiff City between 1966 and 1977 only playing 68 league games before being promoted to a more senior role – who was he?
In terms of loyalty they don’t make players like Ritchie Morgan any more. Signed from Cardiff Corries in 1966 he made his league debut at home to Blackpool in April 1968 and for most of his career was understudy to Don Murray. His busiest season in terms of games was 1974/75 when he played 35 league and cup games after the departure of Don Murray. Unfortunately that season saw us relegated to Division 3. The following season saw him returning to the role of second string behind the likes of Mike England and Albert Larmour in a team that gained immediate promotion back to Division 2. He retired from playing in 1977 and the following year, after the departure of Jimmy Andrews he, very surprisingly, became the youngest manager in the club’s history at the age of 34. He was, controversially, relieved of his managerial duties in November 1981 with City 9th in Division 2. He assumed the role of General Manager with Graham Williams appointed as first team coach but, effectively, as manager. A run of 11 games resulting in 2 draws and 9 defeats saw Williams sacked and, unjustly, Morgan too. Len Ashurst’s appointment in March did not prevent our relegation. Ritchie went on to manage Barry Town with some success.
4. In the 2002/03 – play offs who did Cardiff City beat in the semi-final before memorably beating QPR at the Millennium Stadium to gain promotion?
Andy Campbell’s extra time goal at the Millennium Stadium will always live in the memories of those who were there but it should not be forgotten that we were there following a more than satisfying semi final win over 2 legs against the Wurzels. I remember not feeling very optimistic as they had done the double over us in the league with Christian Roberts and Brian Tinnion getting a goal each in 2-0 defeats. However, a good 1-0 win at home in the 1st leg with a goal from the man wearing the magic hat set up a tense 2nd leg at Ashton Gate. Predictably they threw the kitchen sink at us but Prior and Gabbidon stood firm and a memorable save from Neil Alexander resulted in a 0-0 draw and a place in the final.
5. This England International striker, on loan to Cardiff City from Leeds in the 2005/06 season has a surname that suggests a Vitamin D deficiency – who is he?
Michael Ricketts features in the list of England “One Cap Wonders”. He won his cap whilst at Bolton Wanderers where his his goal scoring got him noticed, in particular a high profile winning goal at Old Trafford in the Premier League. However, the wheels seemed to come off his career. A £3.5m transfer to Middlesbrough resulted in a meagre 4 goals in 38 games and a free transfer to Leeds 17 months later where he failed to score in 25 league games. Loan spells with other clubs then commenced and, after zero goals for Stoke he came to us on loan. With a record like that you could understand why there was not much enthusiasm amongst the Cardiff following at his arrival. His goal in a 1-0 win against Leicester in his 2nd game was his first league goal for the best part of 2 years. His return of 5 goals from 17 games for us was quite good in the context of his career and I recall being a bit optimistic after a good start. However, that feeling quickly disappeared which is what happened to his career after he left us.
6. His father holds the record for the most appearances in a career for Manchester City, we signed him from Wolves and he was in the matchday squad for the 2008 FA Cup Final – who is he?
In 2007/08 we seemed to be all over the shop with goalkeepers with Peter Enckleman, Ross Turnbull, Kaspar Schmeichel, David Forde and Michael Oakes featuring in the first team. Come the FA Cup Final, painful memories bring back the fact that Enckleman started and Michael Oakes was on the bench. I remember Michael Oakes’s father, Alan, as a seemingly permanent feature in the midfield of Manchester City through thick and thin for many years- 680 first team appearances speaks for itself. I remember the excitement of us beating Barnsley in the semi final and the fact that we had actually reached an FA Cup Final brought a tear to my eye. The build up from the 6 April to 17 May 2008 was wonderful but come the game…………… ? I still haven’t forgiven Enckleman. Would Michael Oakes have made a difference ?
7. Which former Cardiff City player scored for Reading in the disastrous 2nd leg of the 2010/11 play off semi final?
More nightmare memories to be dredged up. It started with a creditable draw at Reading but at the very heavy cost of a Bellamy hamstring which kept him out of the second leg. The absence of such a totemic player certainly dampened my expectations somewhat but I was not prepared for what happened on the night. Defensive calamities, Keinan trying to remove Matt Mills’s shirt in the penalty area with the inevitable result, Bothroyd, in his last game for us, bottling a challenge on Reading keeper Adam Federici and, say no more, Stephen Bywater – all features of the evening that come back to haunt me. A 3-0 home defeat is not good under any circumstances but this was too much to bear and the 3rd goal was put away by Jobi McAnuff, a player I much admired during his short spell with us 6 years earlier.
8. In the summer of 2000 German side VfL Osnabrück signed which Cardiff City player at a knock down price compared to the £110,000 we paid SV Waldhof Mannheim?
Jörn Schwinkendorf. At the time I don’t think I could recall another 6’ 5” player in a City shirt before, particularly one who, so tall, seemed to unable to get his head to the ball. He cost us £110,000 we could ill afford, only made 8 first team appearances and we eventually gave him away.
9. In 2018 which former Cardiff City player assisted Usain Bolt’s first official goal for Australian team Central Coast Mariners?
I don’t think Aston Villa look upon the £12m they paid Fulham for Ross McCormack as money well spent as it was here that his career seemed really to have nosedived. Cardiff City fans wondered what in earth the club had done when they let a player go for comparatively modest fee when he subsequently was transferred for fees of £11m and £12m with admirable scoring records at both Leeds and Fulham. However, perhaps his drink driving ban in Cardiff in November 2009 was indicative of how his private life may not have been compatible with that of someone playing at the highest level. Much to the annoyance of Villa fans he earned a £1m contractual promotion bonus despite not playing for them in that season. Whilst on loan to Central Coast Mariners he found himself laying on a goal for Usain Bolt. Ross, not one for keeping himself out of the news, was criticised in the Press recently for allegedly hosting a party on 31 March during the lockdown after which Jack Grealish crashed his car.
10. He scored 34 goals for the City between 1993 and 1995 and also served in the Armed Forces in the Falklands Campaign – who is he?
Ooh aah ! After Fred Keenor, who was wounded at the Battle of the Somme, Phil Stant is possibly our most famous soldier. One thing that sticks in my mind about him is 2 hat tricks in the Welsh Cup in 1993, the first against the mighty Maesteg Park Athletic and the second against the no less mighty Rhyl. However, the latter was in the Final at the National Stadium (rugby!) and in a long career in somewhat modest levels of football, he regarded this as one of his great achievements.
Trust chair Keith Morgan, an accountant and football finance expert, gives his analysis of the latest audited accounts for the year ended May 31, 2019 submitted by Cardiff City Football Club (Holdings) Limited.
Cardiff City Football Club (Holdings)
Commentary on the audited accounts
for the year ended 31 May 2019
following is my commentary on the audited accounts, which were signed off and
approved by the board of directors and by the auditors on February 28, 2020.
1. There was
a net loss for the year of £755k, after a tax charge of £3.3m, so a profit
before tax of £2.6m. This compared to a net loss of £36m in the year to May 31, 2018 (£39m before tax). There are two
points to take into account in these figures. Firstly, the 2018 loss was
significantly reduced down to £9m by a £27m revaluation adjustment on the
club`s stadium. Secondly, the 2019 result is after making a provision of £19.5m
in respect of the club`s dispute with Nantes FC over the Emiliano Sala
transfer. The club have made clear that this provision has only been made in
the profit and loss account on a prudent accounting basis and that its
directors are of the opinion (based on legal advice received) that this sum
will eventually prove to be not payable , with a consequential improvement in
reported financial results.
2. As a
consequence of the above loss, the club`s net liability position worsened
slightly from £10.7m to £11.5m.
3. The group
remains dependent upon the financial support of its owner Tan Sri Vincent Tan,
but the accounts refer to his pledge to continue supporting the club
financially for the foreseeable future.
Main Elements Of Reduction In Losses
These can be
summarised as follows
cost of sales
tax payable (6.6)
profit on sale of players
Increase In Revenue
consequence of its season in the Premier League, income levels rose
dramatically. Not only did broadcasting related revenues increase by £85m to
£107m but gate receipts and sponsorship and advertising revenues also rose by
Increase In Cost Of Sales
element of this was an (expected) increase in players` wages which rose by
£11.3m to £42.5m. However, a significant part of this wages increase was offset
by other wage reductions so that the overall increase in wage costs across the
club was limited to £5.1m.
Increase in Administrative Expenses
increased dramatically by £47.8m to £62.1m. Most of this increase was down to
three main factors:
The provision of £19.5m in respect of
the Emiliano Sala transfer dispute. As stated above, the directors do not
believe that this amount will eventually prove to be payable, but have provided
for it as a prudent accounting entry.
Player amortisation costs – the
amount by which their cost is written off in the accounts across their contract
periods – rose by over £10m as a result of player acquisition costs being far
higher in recent years than in earlier seasons.
Player impairment costs – the extra
write off made because players were worth less than their accounting written
down value after annual amortisation (see above) when assessed at the year end.
This figure was £11.6m in 2019 and zero in 2018. This figure would include ,
for example, an allowance for the termination of the contract of Gary Madine.
Decrease In Interest Payable
there was a technical accounting tax charge of £6.4m which was not required in
2019. Other interest payable rose by £1.3m to £1.8m.
Increase In Tax Payable
accounting technical adjustment to do with tax timing differences rather than
to do with the underlying business of the club.
Player Sale Profits
£2.4m in 2018 season and £2.2m last season.
The Balance Sheet
above, the balance sheet position worsened slightly as a result of the reported
net losses for the year.
principal assets and liabilities as at May 31, 2019 were as follows:
professionally in May 2018 by independent valuers at £83.5m and since
depreciated down to £82.8m. In addition to the stadium itself, its fixtures and
fittings and training ground improvements had a value in the balance sheet of
(depreciated) value of players in the balance sheet at May 31, 2019 was £23.5m.
The club has invested heavily in players over the last three seasons as funding
support for its manager. In the year to May 31, 2018 it acquired new players of
total value £14.3m (2017 was £5.9m), in the year to May 31, 2019 that rose to
£38.2m and in the current season expenditure on new players has been £23.1m.
club did not make major profits on the sale of players in that period, it was
able to generate substantial cash inflows from the sale of players (Zahore,Reid,Manga
etc) which helped offset the cash cost of new player registrations.
The club had
£2.2m of cash at the bank as at May 31, 2019 and debts due to it of £14.2m (of
which over £10m related to broadcasting income earned in the season but not
received until after the year end).
to the provision of £19.5m regarding a contract dispute referred to above
(which may never actually be payable), the group had liabilities payable on or
before May 31, 2020 totalling £114m.
Of the above
total of £114m, £40.1m is shown as due to the owner Vincent Tan , some £32.3m
of his debt having apparently been repaid during the year. This reduction in
debt due to him was replaced by other loans of £39.5m from other (unnamed)
parties who are not shareholders or directors (if they were the loans would
have had to have been disclosed as related party transactions).
remaining debt due to TSVT is split into two elements. £14.8m is stated to be
interest bearing at 7% a year and carrying the right to convert into shares
with the vast majority of the balance being non-interest
bearing and having no conversion rights. Both elements are secured by charges
over the assets of the football group.
from other parties are also stated to be secured over future guaranteed income streams – probably
broadcasting fees earned but not yet paid. That security would have had to be
given with the specific consent of creditors having registered security over
the group`s assets.
Summary And Conclusions
in the Premier League in 2018-19 enabled the club to make a profit from its
trading activities of around £22m before tax and before making the provision
for a debt which may or may not prove to be payable.
the resultant “parachute payments” receivable in the current season and, to a
lesser extent, in 2020-21 season, will assist in stabilising the club`s
must be appreciated that there will still be a major reduction in the club`s
income stream as those payments are greatly less than the broadcasting rights
the club earned in 2018-19. Costs will have to be controlled accordingly as
best possible in order to comply with Profitability and Sustainability
(Financial Fair Play) requirements of the EFL. It is therefore highly likely
that the levels of recent expenditure on player recruitment will not be
repeated in the near future.
club is also likely to remain reliant on the ongoing financial support of its
owner, and others, for the foreseeable future.